I wanted to post this bit of information for the simple fact, the officer in Charleston said he used his “training” while firing on a fleeing man. I call bullshit.
THERE IS NO IMMEDIATE THREAT TO YOUR LIFE WHEN THE PERSON IS FLEEING!
1. Officer presence — described as the professionalism, uniform, and utility belt of the law enforcement officer and the marked vessel or vehicle the officer arrives in. The visual presence of authority is normally enough for a subject to comply with an officers lawful demands. Depending on the totality of the circumstances, a call/situation may require additional officers or an on scene officers may request assistance in order to gain better control of the situation and ensure a safer environment for all involved. It also will depend on the circumstances of the situation: for example, how many people are on scene with the officer – a larger presence may be required. However, if 10 officers arrive at a scene with only a single suspect, the public may perceive the situation as an excessive use of officer presence within the use of force continuum. In many models, the officer’s personal defense weapon (firearm) un-holstered and pointed at a subject falls under officer presence.
2. Verbal commands/cooperative controls — is described as clear and understandable verbal direction by an officer aimed at the subject. In some cases, it is necessary for the officer to include a consequence to the verbal direction so that the subject understands what will happen if the subject refuses to comply with the officer’s direction. The verbal command and the consequence must be legal and not considered excessive according to the continuum: for example, an officer could not order a disabled person in a wheel chair to stand up or they would be sprayed by Oleoresin Capsicum (OC) Pepper Spray.
3. Empty-hand submission techniques, PPCT – Pressure Point Control Tactics, Control Tactics, techniques — would be explained in some models as a level of force that has a low probability of causing soft connective tissue damage or bone fractures. This would include joint manipulation techniques, applying pressure to pressure points and normal application of hand-cuffs.
4. Hard control Techniques/Aggressive response techniques — can be described as an amount of force that has a probability of causing soft connective tissue damage or bone fractures or irritation of the skin, eyes, and mucus membranes. This would include kicks, punches, stuns and use of aerosol sprays such as oleoresin capsicum (OC) pepper spray. Some models split these techniques between Empty hand/soft control and intermediate weapon techniques and only include 5 levels of the continuum.
5. Intermediate weapons — would be an amount of force that would have a high probability of causing soft connective tissue damage or bone fractures. (e.g. expandable baton, baton, pepper spray, Taser, beanbag rounds, beanbag rounds, rubber, Mace (spray), police dogs, etc.) Intermediate weapons techniques are designed to impact on muscles, arms and Legs, intentionally using an intermediate weapon on the head, neck, groin, knee caps, or spine would be classified as deadly or lethal force.
6. Lethal force/Deadly force — is explained in some models as a force having a high probability of causing death or serious bodily injury. Serious bodily injury includes unconsciousness, protracted or obvious physical disfigurement, or protracted loss of or impairment to the function of a bodily member, organ, or the mental faculty. A firearm is the most widely recognized lethal or deadly force weapon, however, an automobile or weapon of opportunity could also be defined as a deadly force utility.